Sudanese Fermented Foods


  • Amel Sami School of Microbiology UCC
  • Catherine Stanton Teagasc food research centre, Moorepark, Fermoy Co Cork
  • Imad Elimairi
  • Paul R Ross
  • Yasmeen Elyass
  • Marmar Elsiddig
  • Heyam Salih



Sudan, Fermented Foods, 16S rRNa sequencing, 18S rRNA sequencing, Sudanese foods


Fermented foods of Sudan are a great source of affordable daily nutrition for many families and age groups all over the country. These foods include a diverse categorisation of starting ingredients and incur traditional methodologies of production which have been preserved for centuries. We used next generation sequencing (16S rRNA and 18S rRNA) to analyse 44 Sudanese Fermented foods in five major categories food types; sorghum, plant, meat, fish and dairy. Samples were collected in Khartoum, Sudan and analysed in Cork, Ireland. We found an extensive array of unique microorganisms in Sudanese fermented foods that extended over 1300 operational taxonomic units (bacterial identification) and many fungi. While many of these foods have healthy benefits for human health, harmful bacteria and fungi were also found owing to the preparatory methods of these types of food. Further research is required to isolate the microbiome of such foods and bring about health promoting effects of Sudanese Fermented Foods to light.

Author Biographies

Catherine Stanton, Teagasc food research centre, Moorepark, Fermoy Co Cork

Senior Principal Research Officer at Teagasc and Research Professor at UCC, College of Medicine and Health


Imad Elimairi

Professor oral and maxillofacial surgery and imemdiate past dean dental faculty National Ribat University Khartoum Sudan 

Paul R Ross

Director APC Microbiome Ireland 

Yasmeen Elyass

Researcher and advisor 

Marmar Elsiddig

Researcher and Collaborater

Heyam Salih